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2A2 Cooke on Chippewa Bird Names. [July 

terus from the Adirondacks (Bull. N. O. C, Vol. VI, No. 4, 
Oct. 1880, p. 235). I did not kill the bird, but saw them (there 
were two) for several hours flying about a pond. They were 
smaller than argentatus, and the primaries were without black 
tips. This was just after the ice had gone out of the lakes in 
April, 1S78." 



BIRD NOMENCLATURE OF THE CHIPPEWA 
INDIANS. 



BY W. W. COOKE. 



During a three years' residence among the Chippewas at 
White Earth, Minn., I had many opportunities of learning the 
names which they give to birds, and some of their ideas regarding 
them. These Indians claim to have a name for each and every 
kind of bird inhabiting their county ; as a fact, they have no 
specific name for fully 0113-half of those which yearly nest before 
their eyes, or pass by in migration. We may say in general that 
they give names to all winter residents, since at that time bird 
life is so scarce that each one is accurately noticed, while summer 
birds of much greater dissimilarity receive but one name. 

Among summer residents, nearly all those that are hunted for 
food are named and described. Indeed, few white hunters, or 
ornithologists, can recognize the different species of Ducks as 
quickly or at as great a distance as many of these Indians. Of 
the other summer birds, most of the large species have names, 
but some of these, as, for example, those of the Hawks and Owls, 
are very loosely applied. They all seem to be familiar with the 
names, but not with the particular bird to which each belongs. 
This may be accounted for by the large number of stories about 
these birds which are told to the children, teaching them the names, 
but not the appearance of the birds. The small birds of summer 
seem to the Indian beneath his notice, and when asked the name, 
the answer not uncommonly is, "Why do you want to know its 
name? It isn't good to eat." They consider that when to a 
small winged animal they have given the name 'bird,' they have 
done their whole duty. 



1884.] Cooke on Chiffevia Bird Names. ^43 

In regard to the etymological meaning of the bird names, we 
find, as in English, that some are descriptive of the bird or its 
habits, while bthers are mere names, without signification. A 
large proportion are compounds, for the language as a whole 
is compound, with but few roots, these usually having meaning. 
The names of most of the large, common, and best known birds 
are simple and without signification. 

All the bird names used by Longfellow in 'Hiawatha' were 
identified except O-wais'-sa, the Bluebird ; Chi-to' -wak , the 1 
Plover, and Wa-won-e'-za, the Whippoorwill. Longfellow says 
the scene of his poem is laid among the Indians of the Pictured 
Rocks of Lake Superior, but I was unable to find any Indian who 
had ever heard these names, though I examined several who were 
born and brought up along the southeast shore of the lake. It 
may be that these words belong to the Canadian Chippewas or 
Nah-tah-was, and have been accidentally introduced among the 
names of the western tribe. 

The names given by Bishop Barega, in his dictionary of the 
Ojibwa Language, have all been identified except A-mik'-o-shib. 
the Beaver Duck ; O-da'-ma-we'-shi, a small white bird ; ya-wa'- 
ni-bi-ne'-shi, South Bird ; Du-qua'-que-tue'-shib, Short-necked 
Duck, and Mi'-gi-san-na-nis'-si, Eagle-fighter, a small blue bird. 
Unfortunately the Bishop, though a good theologian, was no 
ornithologist, and besides saying "Are not two swallows sold for 
a farthing ?" he has wrongly identified nearly one-half of the birds 
he has named. 

The list, as it now stands, is practically complete. At the out- 
side there are not more than five or six names to be added. 

In these names the French system of spelling is used — that is, 
a'has the sound of a in ah ; e is pronounced like a long ; i, like e 
long ; o, like o long, u, like u short ; at, like i long : J, like zh ; 
g, usually like g hard ; in the few cases where g is soft it is dis- 
tinguished by being printed in Italic type. 

The English name is given first, then the Latin, according to the 
Smithsonian Catalogue, then the Chippewa, then the etymological 
meaning of the Indian name, and lastly, remarks. 

Thrush, in general, A-nuk'. 

1. Olive-backed Thrush. Hylocichla ustulata sviainsoni. A-nuk'. 
Mere name. 

2. Wilson's Thrush. Hylocichla fuscescens. An-wak'. Name. 



244 Cooke on Chippewa Bird Names. [July 

3. American Robin. Merula migratoria. O-pi'-che. Name. 

4. Catbird. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Ma-ma'-dwe-bi-ne'-shi, the 
bird that cries with grief; referring to its note. 

5. Brown Thrush. Harporhynchus rufns. Chi'-a-nuk', big Thrush- 
6 Bluebird. Sialia sialis. O-zou-wash'-ko-bi-ne'-shi, the blue col- 

ered bird. 

7. Black-capped Chickadee. Parus atricapillus. Kitch'-i-kitch'-i- 
ga'-ne-shi. Attempted mimicry of its song. 

8. White-bellied Nuthatch. Sitta carolinensis. Chi-chi-ga'-nan- 
da-we'-shi. Imitation of song. 

9. Red-bellied Nuthatch. Sitta canadensis. Ki-ki-bi'-di-ko-me'- 
shi. Imitation. Some claim that this is merely another name for 5. 
carolinensis. 

10. House Wren. Troglodytes ah'don. O-du-na'-mis-sug-ud-da-we'- 
shi, making a big noise for its size. They do not distinguish it from the 
Winter Wren. 

11. Marsh Wren. . Telmatodytes palustris and Cistotkorus stellaris. 
Mus-ko'-zi-bi-ne'-shi, marsh bird. They do not distinguish between the 
two Wrens, nor between these and the Swamp Sparrow (Afelospisa palus- 
tris). 

12. Summer Yellowbird. Dendrceca cestiva. O-za'-wa-bi-ne'-shi, 
yellowbird. They would also apply the same name to all the Warblers 
which have much yellow, thinking that they are all one and the same 
species. 

13. Black-throated Blue Warbler. Dendrceca ccerulescens. O- 
ja'-wa-no, bluebird. Of this I am not sure, although I have it on good 
authority. 

14. Vireo. Not a Vireo is named. 

15. Shrike. Lanius borcalis. Kitch'-i-win'-di-go-bi-ne'-shi, big can- 
nibal-bird. 

16. Bohemian Waxwing. Ampelis garrulus. O-ze'-gi-ban-wan'-i- 
shin, crested bird. 

17. Cedar Waxwing. Ampelis cedrorum. O'-gi-ma-bi-ne'-shi, the 
bird that is king or chief. 

18. Purple Martin. Progne subis. Mu-ku-de'-shau-shau'-wun-ni-bi'- 
si, black Swallow. All other Swallows, Shau-shau'-wun-ni-bi-sence', 
little bird that tumbles over and over in the air; alluding to its manner of 
flying. 

19. Scarlet Tanager. Pyranga rubra. O-da'-^i-na-ma- ne'-shi. 
Could not learn its meaning. The name Ish'-ko-de-bi-nc'-shi, fire bird, is 
also applied to it, just as the whites call it the Firebird. 

20. Evening Grosbeak. Hesperiphona -oespertina. Pash-kan'-da- 
mo. Refers to a noise made by breaking something, but I am unable to 
find any reason for applying it to this bird. 

21. Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola enucleator. O-ka-nis'-se. Mere name. 

22. Crossbill, both species. A'-ji-de-ko-ne'-shi, having a crossed bill. 

23. American Goldfinch. Astrigalhus tristis. Bi-yung'. Name. 



1884.] Cooke on Chippeiva Bird Names. 24C 

24. Snow Bunting. Plectrophanes nivalis. Wa'-bu-nong-o'-zi, 
morning star bird ; application not obvious. 

25. Song Sparrow. Melospiza fasciata. Kos-kos-ko-ni'-chi, making 
a scraping or whispering noise. This name is also indiscriminately ap- 
plied to any small dull-colored bird, which is seen in the grass or on low 
shrubs. Probably thirty or more species would be included under this 
name. 

26. Black Snowbird. Junco hyemalis. Bu-te'-shi-wish. Name. 

27. Towhee Bunting. Pipilo eryihropkthalmus. Muk-ud-e'-ai-a'-nuk, 
black Thrush. 

28. Rose-breasted Grosbeak. They must have a name for it, but 
I failed to find it. 

29. Bobolink. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Shi-ka'-go-bi-ne'-shi. Chicago 
bird, that is, skunk bird, from the white stripe down the middle of the 
back. 

30. Cowbird. Molothrus ater. A-ga'-jid-as-sig'-gi-nak, small Black- 
bird. 

31. Yellow-headed Blackbird. Xantkocephalus icterocephalus. 
Bwan-ence'-as-sig'-gi-nak, little Sioux blackbird ; because its home is in 
the west, in the land of the Sioux. 

32. Red-winged Blackbird. Agelaus phoeniceus. Me'-mis-ko-di'-ni- 
mang-a-ne'-shi, the red-shouldered bird. 

33. Blackbird, in general. As-sig'-gi-nak, living in flocks. 

34. Meadow Lark. Very scarce in the land of the Chippewas, and I 
could find no one who had ever heard a name for it. 

35. Baltimore Oriole. Icterus galbula. Wa-do'-pi-bi-ne'-shi, pop- 
lar or willow bird ; from its nesting so frequently on the boughs of these 
trees. 

36. Purple Grackle. Quiscalus purpureas. Chi-as-sig-gi-nak, big 
Blackbird. 

37. American Raven. Corvus corax carnivorus. Ka-gog-i'. Name. 

38. Crow. Corvus frugivorus. An-deg'. Two meanings are given, 
(1) "renewal," referring to the spring, and (2) "those that come," mean- 
ing those that migrate, in contradistinction to the Raven, which is resi- 
dent. Whichever meaning is the true one, it remains a fact that the Chip- 
pewas look upon the coming of the Crow as the sign of spring, and say : 
"We will soon be making sugar. The Crows have come." All signs are 
fallible, and I have seen it 35 below zero after the Crows had made their 
appearance. 

39. Magpie. Pica rustica hudsonica. A-pish'-ka-gog-i', like the 
Raven. 

40. Blue Jay. Cyanocitta cristata. Jan-di'-si. Name. 

41. Canada Jay. Perisoreus canadensis. Guin-gui'-shi. Name. 

42. Shore Lark. Eremophila alpestris. O-za'-wa-wa'-bu-nong-o'-zi, 
yellow Snow Bunting. 

43. Kingbird. Tyrannus carolinensis. Win'-di-go-bi-ne-shi. Can- 
nibal bird, or the bird which has the characteristics of a cannibal giant. 



Zd.6 Cooke on C/iippexva Bird Names. [J u 'y 

It will be noticed that they give the same name to the Shrike and the 
Kingbird ; a name which refers both to the butchering qualities of the one 
and the fighting qualities of the other. 

44. Phcebe. No name, and none for the rest of the Flycatchers. 

45. Ruby-throated Hummer. Trochilus colnbris. Nen-o-ka'-si. 
Name. 

46. Chimney Swift. Chcetura pelasgica. Me-mit'-ti-go-ning-gue- 
ga-ne'-si, wooden quills, in allusion to the stiff tail-feathers. 

47. Whippoorwill. Caprimnlgits vociferns. Gwen-go-wi-a', imita- 
tion of cry. As the Indian pronounces it, it is a better imitation than our 
English xvJiip-poor-tvill. 

48. Nighthawk. Chordiles popetue. Besh-que', imitation of the pe- 
culiar noise it makes as it swoops down when flying. 

49. Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers. Picns pubescens and P. vil- 
losus. Pa-pa'-se, cracking, from the noise the bird makes in pecking 
at trees. Picoides arcticus and Sphyrqpicus varins occur, but are not dis- 
tinguished from Picus villosus. 

50. Pileated Woodpecker. Hylotomus pileatus. Me'-me, probably 
from its cry. 

51. Red-headed Woodpecker. Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Pa'- 
que-a-mo', the bird that breaks off pieces. 

52. Yellow-shafted Flicker. Colaftes attratus. Mo-ning'-gua-ne', 
bird with dirty colored wings. 

53. Kingfisher. Ceryle ulcyon. O-gish'-ki-mun-is-si', cut up to a 
point, as the Indians dress their hair on state occasions; referring of 
course to the bird's crest. 

54. Cuckoo, both species. Pi-gua-o-ko'-que-o-we'-shi, imitation of 
note, which in Indian, as in English, is supposed to foretell rain. 

55. Owl, in general. O-ko'-ko-ko-o', afraid. The word is now used in 
Chippewa with that meaning. I suspect, though I have no authority 
for it, that the name was originally given to the bird in imitation of its 
note ; and then, as its habits during the day time became known, the word 
came later to have its present meaning. 

56. Long-eared Owl. Distinguished but not named. 

57. Short-eared Owl. Not distinguished. 

58. Barn Owl. AIhco flammens americanus. Bo'-du-wi-dom-be'. 
No meaning that I can find. 

59. Barred Owl. Strix nebulosa. Wen'-^i-du-ko-ko-ko-o', true OwJ. 

60. Great Gray Owl. Ulula cinerea. We-wen'-^i-ga-no'. No 
meaning found. 

61. Little Screech Owl. Scops asio. Ka-kab'-i-shi. Mere name. 

62. Great Horned Owl. Bubo virginianus. O-tow'-i-ge-o-ko'-ko- 
ko-o', horned Owl. 

63. Snowy Owl. Nyctea scandiaca. Wa'-bi-o-ko'-ko-o', white Owl. 

64. Hawk Owl. No name found. 

65. Hawk, in general. Ke-kek', mere name, unless possibly imitation 
of scream. 



1884]. Cooke on Chippewa Bird Names. 247 

66. Sparrow Hawk. Tinnunculus sparverius. Pi-pi'-gi-wi-zance', 
a diminutive name. 

67. Fish Hawk. Pandion haliae'tus carolinensis. Mi-'^gi-ki-gua-ne'. 
Name. 

68. Swallow-tailed Kite. Elanus forficatus. Kitch'-i-shau-shau'- 
won-ni-bi'-si, big Swallow. 

69. Marsh Hawk. Circus hudsonius. O-no'-^i-gi-neb-i-que'-si, snake 
hunter? 

70. 71. Cooper's Hawk and Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter 
cooperi and A. fuscus) are both called Ke-kek'. When wishing to distin- 
guish them, A. cooperi is called Mish'-i-ke-kek', hairy Hawk; application 
not obvious. 

72. Red-tailed Hawk. Buteo borealis. Mis'-qua-na-ni'-sl, small 
red Hawk. 

73. Goshawk. Astur atricapillus. Ki-bwan'-i-si. I think this is 
correctly identified. It was given to me as "a large Hawk which stays 
here all winter," and I think the Goshawk is the only one that remains 
habitually in northern Minnesota during the winter. 

74. Rough-legged Hawk. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis. 
Mu-ku-de'-ke-kek', black Hawk. 

75. Swainson's Hawk. Buteo sivainsoni. Tchai-ince'. Mere name. 
Of this I am not sure, and I think it not unlikely that B. lineatus, B. 
sivainsoni, and B. pennsylvanica, all come in for a share in this name. 

76. Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaetos canadensis. Gi-neu'. Name. 
This is the War Eagle of the Chippewas, and its tail-feathers are highly 
prized as head ornaments. 

77. Bald Eagle. Haliae'tus leucocepkalus. Mi'-gi-zi. Name. When 
young, or gray, it is called Ini'-ni-zi, man Eagle ; when old and white, 

Wa'-bi-j'ush-kwe' , white woman. 

78. Turkey Buzzard. Catkartes aura. Wi-nong'-a, dirty wing. 

79. Pigeon. Bctopistes migratoria. O-mi'-mi. Imitation of note. 

80. Mourning Dove. Zenaidura carolinensis. Not distinguished, 
but the tame Dove is called Wa'-ba-mi'-mi, white Pigeon. 

81. Turkey. Meleagris gallopavo americana. Mi-sis'-ai. Name. 
They call the Peacock the 'splendid Turkey.' 

82. Canada Grouse. Canace canadensis. Mus-ko-de'-se, prairie 
bird. 

83. Prairie Hen. Cupidonia cupido. A-gusk', imitation of call in 
spring. The Sharp-tailed Grouse is quite as common as C. cupido, but is 
not distinguished. 

84. Quail. Ortyx virginianus. No name. 

85. Ruffed Grouse. Bonasa umbellus. Wen'-^i-da-bi-ne', true 
Grouse. Grouse in general, Bi-ne'. Mere name. 

86. Great Blue Heron. Ardea herodias. Shu-shu'-ga. Name; 
possibly imitative. 

87. American Bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus. Mosh-ka-was-shi, 
coming up from under. The Indians claim that it makes its cry while 



2J.8 Cook?: on Chippcxna Bird Names. [J»'y 

holding its head under water, so that the sound has to come up out of the 
water. 

8S. Least Bittern. Ardetta exilis. Ga - na - wa' - bi-mo-gi'-zis-si- 
swesh'-in, the bird that looks at the sun; referring to its habit of climb- 
ing upon reed stalks and then holding up its head, as if looking toward 
the heavens. . 

89. Golden Plover. Ckaradrins dominions. O-za'-wa-^i'-^xik-o-chu- 
is-ki-wen', yellow Crane Sandpiper. 

90. Killdeer. Oxyeclius vociferus. Mus-ko-de'-chi-chi-ji'-twish-ki- 
wen', big prairie Sandpiper. 

91. Woodcock. Philohela minor. Kitch'-i-pa-dash'-ka-an'-ja, big 
Snipe. 

92. Wilson's Snipe. Gallinago media viilsoni. Pa-dash'-ka-an'-ja, 
bill long and pointed. 

93. Sandpipers, in general, and the Pectoral Sandpiper (Actodromas 
maculata) in particular, Ji-twish'-ki-wen'. Poor imitation of cry. 

94. Curlew. Am told it has a name, but have been unable to find it. 

95. Sora Rail. Porzana Carolina. Mo-no'-min-i-kesh'-i, rice bird, 
from its living in the swamps of wild rice. This is the only Rail they are 
familiar with, but they would use the same name for any other kind. 

96. American Coot. Fulica americana. A'-tchi-ga-deg', legs hang- 
ing down behind. 

97. Sandhill Crane. Or/is canadensis. A-^i-^ak'. Name. 

98. Whooping Crane. Grits americana. Wab'-a-^i-^ak', white 
Crane. 

99. Swan, both species. Wa'-bi-si, white bird. 

100. The name Ma'-na-bi'-si, they say they give to a small kind of 
Swan that is not an uncommon visitor to this country. I am unable to 
identify the bird, but suspect it is the Snow Goose. 

101. Canada Goose. Bernicla canadensis. Ni-ka'. Name. 

102. Brant. Bernicla brenta. We'-we' (with strong nasal sound 
and emphasis to each syllable). Imitation of the bird's 'honk.' 

103. White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons gambeli. A-pish'-ni- 
ka', like a Goose. This is the only bird that is at all like the description 
they give of this species. Still I am not perfectly sure of the identification. 

104. Mallard. Anas boscas. I-ni'-ni-shib', man Duck. S/iib is the 
ending meaning Diick. The female Mallard they call Wab'-i-n i-ni-sh il> '. 
white Mallard. 

105. Black Mallard. Anas obscura. Muk-ud-e'-shib, black Duck. 

106. Pintail. Dafila acuta. Kin-o-gua'-ya-we-shib, long-necked 
Duck. 

107. Shoveller. Spatula clyfeata. Ma-da-i-ga'-ni-shib, shovelling 
Duck. 

10S. Blue-winged Teal. £)jtcrquedula discors. We-wi'-bing-guang- 
ge', making a noise while fluttering its wings. 

109. Green-winged Teal. Ncttion carolinciisis. Sug-gu-ta'-ka-ni- 
shib. Spunk Duck. Can find no reason for giving this name. It is also 
called 'Big Teal.' 



1884.] Cooke on Ciippetva Bird Names. 24Q 

no. Wood Duck. Aix sponsa. Si-a-mo'. Name, 
in. Scaup Ducks (both Fulix marila and F. ajffinis). Ma'-ni-do- 
shib', spirit Duck. 

112. Ring-billed Blackhead. Fulix collaris. Tu-gua'-go-shib, fall 
Duck. 

113. Redhead. Aythya americana. Kitch'-i-tu-gua'-go-shib, big fall 
Duck. The Indians call the Canvasback by the same name. They did 
not distinguish between the two species until white hunters taught them 
the difference. 

114. American Golden-eye Clangula glaucium americana. Mud- 
we-ang'-ge-shib, wings making a whistling. Another name for the same 
Duck is Pi-k-uia'-ko-shib, arrow Duck. 

115. Buttbrball. Clangula albeola. Wa-ke'-i-a'-wi-shib', shot eater, 
because it is so hard to hit. 

116. Sheldrakes, in general, An'-zig, from an herb, growing at the 
bottom of lakes, on which it feeds. 

117. American Sheldrake. Mergus merganser americanus. Kitch- 
i-an'-zig, big Sheldrake. 

118. Red-breasted Sheldrake. Mergus serrator. O-ga-wan'-zig, 
yellow Sheldrake. 

1 19. Hooded Sheldrake. Lophodytes cucullatus. Gi-ni-ko-ne'-shib, 
sharp-billed Duck. 

120. A Duck, not identified, is called A-mik'-o-shib, Beaver Duck. 

121. Pelican, both species. She'-de. Name. 

122. Double-crested Cormorant. Phalacrocorax dilofhus. Ka- 
gog'-i-shib, Raven Duck. 

123. For all the Gulls and Terns, they have but one name, Kai-osk', 
intended as an imitation of their cry. 

124. Horned Grebe {Bytes auritus), or Eared Grebe (D. nigricollis), 
or both. Kitch'-i-shin'-gi-bis, big diver. 

125. Loon. Colymbus torquatus. Mang, brave. This is almost the 
only word of one syllable in the Chippewa language. In English, to call 
a person a loon is not very complimentary, but the Indians use loon- 
hearted just as we do lion-hearted, to denote extreme bravery. In the 
fall, when the colors get dull, the name A'-shi-mang is given, meaning 
false Loon. 

126. Thick-billed Grebe. Podilymbus podiceps. Shin'-gi-bis, de- 
formed. 

We may close these notes by giving one of the Indian stories by which 
they account for this name as applied to the Grebes. 

Once on a time the Great Spirit looked down on all the beasts and birds 
and saw that their lives were one dull round of monotonous toil. So he 
told them to assemble at a certain place and he would teach them many 
beautiful games. He built an immense wigwam, and at the appointed 
time all were there except the Grebe. He made fun of the whole matter, 
and said he knew tricks enough already. While the Great Spirit was 
instructing the assemblage, the Grebe danced in derision before the door, 



2 CO Henshaw cm a New Gull from Alaska. [J"b - 

and finally, emboldened by the forbearance of his master, ran into the 
room, and by dancing on the fire, put it out and filled the wigwam with 
smoke. Then the patience of the Great Spirit could stand it no longer, 
and giving the Grebe a kick, he exclaimed, "Deformed shalt thou go 
through this world for the rest of thy days !" The imperial foot struck 
him just at the base of the tail. It knocked the body forward, but the 
legs remained behind, and the Grebe has ever since had the legs set so 
far back on the body that it cannot walk. 



ON A NEW GULL FROM ALASKA. 

BY H. W. HENSHAW. 

In a series of Gulls collected by Mr. E. W. Nelson in Alaska 
I find a specimen which differs decidedly not only from any other 
taken by that gentleman but from any in the National Museum 
collection. Believing it to be new I name and describe it as 
follows : — 

Larus nelsoni, sp. now 

$, adult, breeding flumage (No. 97253, Coll. Nat. Mus., St. Michael's 
Alaska, June 20. 1SS0. E. W. Nelson, collector) : Bill robust, relatively, 
short; upper mandible slightly convex; lower mandible with moderate 
angle. First primary longest. Tarsus a little shorter than middle toe 
and claw. Head, neck, tail, and entire under parts snowy white; mantle 
pale pearl-blue, lighter than in glaueescens, about as in leucopterus and 
kumlieni. Primaries : on the Jirst. the inner web (except along the shaft) 
and tip (for three inches) is pure white; outer web, dark slate-gray, 
except at tip, the slate extending slightly farther in an acute angle to 
shaft on this than on the inner web. Inner web along the shaft, a 
lighter shade of the same, fading into white on both webs as the base is 
approached. The second has the slate almost wholly confined to the 
outer web, upon which it begins two inches from the tip. where it intrudes 
upon the inner web in the shape of a small spot, and extends upwards 
along the shaft for 2.25 inches, then makes an acute angle with the shaft 
and extends 1.50 inches farther on outer margin. On the third the slate 
extends from about 4 inches from the tip nearly to the end, slightly 
washing the inner web at its extremity. On the four t/i the slate is paler, 
and begins on the outer web about one inch from the tip and reaches an inch, 
then makes an acute angle with the shaft and extends rather more than